With the introduction of SAP S/4HANA there have been many improvements in SAP Controlling including:
- Cost elements are now included in General Ledger (GL) accounts with a cost element category.
- SAP Material Ledger is mandatory. SAP Actual Costing is not mandatory.
- SAP Margin Analysis based on account-based CO-PA now has advantages over costing-based CO-PA. All SAP development on profitability Analysis now takes place in SAP Margin Analysis.
Controlling manufacturing order variance analysis is now improved with two new Fiori apps with enhanced views of variance at the order and work center and operation levels which are now included in the universal journal. Let's discuss the two Fiori apps:
Production Cost Analysis (ID F1780)
Analyze Costs by Work Center/Operation (ID F3331)
SAP Fiori is a web based interface for SAP which can be used in place of the SAP GUI.
Production Cost Analysis App
The Production Cost Analysis app shown in Figure 1 replaces SAP GUI order selection report S_ALR_87013127.
Figure 1 : Production Cost Analysis - Summary View
You select the primary report filters at the top to display a summary of production order costs.
A list of orders is displayed with target costs, actual costs, and variances.
Double-click an order to display order detailed costs. This view is similar to the SAP GUI order detail report KKBC_ORD.
Click on ">" (last column) to switch to an individual order. Figure 2 displays a report for order 1003133.
Figure 2: Production Cost Analysis - Order Details
You can group costs by GL account, business transaction, and cost component.
A special view displays order WIP.
This app accesses universal journal actual and target order costs.
SAP GUI reports S_ALR_87013127 and KKBC_ORD access summary tables COSS and COSP.
SAP Fiori actual costs are from ACDOCA.
Target costs are from ACDOCP. A plan category defines the purpose of the plan data. In cost center planning, a plan category is assigned to actual cost center plans, while others are assigned to forecast plans.
Two plan categories are for manufacturing orders: PLANORD01 and PLANORD02.
PLANORD01 plan values use the order preliminary cost estimate, generated during order creation. Order target costs are calculated based on this plan and represent expected costs using the bill of materials and routing task list assigned to the order during creation. When the order is processed, variances using these targets represent manufacturing performance. These differences correspond to variance calculations for Target Cost Version 1.
PLANORD02 costs are based on the standard cost estimate, and differences from targets represent total variances for the order. This is similar to Target Cost Version 0 view in previous reports.Total variances are relevant for settlement.
Target costs are calculated from ACDOCP regardless of order status. SAP GUI reports rely on summary tables, target cost calculation is only performed on orders not processed by the variance calculation transaction KKS1. Once this is processed, target costs are set and will not change until you run variance calculation next. This can lead to issues interpreting variance data if activity occurs after VCAL status is set.
Immediate target calculations were only made for orders twithout VCAL status. Doing this for all orders results in increased report time. Plan table ACDOCP and the speed of HANA allow targets to be recalculated when the report is executed.
Plan Category selection determines the variance view shown. Figure 3 shows the two options.
Figure 3: Selecting How Target Costs are Calculated
Production Order Standard Costs targets are calculated based on the standard cost estimate for plan category PLANORD02 in ACDOCP.
Production Order Plan Cost uses the preliminary order cost estimate values with PLANORD01.
Order Status determines the differences that show up in the report:
Open status refers to orders which are released (REL) but not fully delivered (DLV) or technically complete (TECO). Differences for these orders are Work in Process (WIP).
Closed status orders are either DLV or TECO and differences represent variances.
Order Status selection narrows the list to either open or closed orders.
You can also select both open and closed status to display all orders. The report displays order status.
The SAP GUI order selection report allows you to use a status selection profile to define a range of order status to include or exclude orders from the report. For example, when an order reaches CLSD status, you do not need to include the order in variance reports.
You can acheive this with SAP GUI report S_ALR_87013127 and status selection profiles.
The Production Cost Analysis app does not yet include this functionality.
Analyze Costs by Work Center/Operation App
The Analyze Costs by Work Center/Operation app provides a greater level of detail than available in ECC. This app uses the universal journal additional fields of work center and operation to provide variance management at a more detailed level.
This report contains chart and tabular report sections which are both displayed when you first run the app as shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Analyze Costs by Work Center/Operation Initial Report Window
You can expand each section display more information.
The chart section at the top is useful for comparing the performance of work centers to identify areas for further review.
These examples use bar charts. You can can also select pie charts, stacked bar charts, line charts, and scatter charts.
A bar chart view comparing plan/actual debit variances with target/actual debit variances by work center is displayed in Figure 5.
Figure 5: Analyze Costs by Work Center/Operation Chart View
The tabular report shown in Figure 6 details costs at the work center based on both activity posting and material goods issues.
Figure 6 shows the Work Center Summary view. You can select other views.
Figure 6: Analyze Costs by Work Center/Operation Tabular View
Production managers now have a view of performance at the work center level.
Component allocations in routings and recipes determine how goods movements are assigned to specific work centers, and the goods issues are displayed along with the activity postings at the work center level.
Like the Production Cost Analysis app, you select the plan category when you execute the report, which allows you to use order-based targets rather than financial targets for analysis.
The data is cumulative for a fiscal period, and the results of corrective actions may not be apparent until the next period. However, having the ability to aggregate this data by work center is useful for a production manager and opens up new possibilities to control the manufacturing environment.
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