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SAP Press Book General Ledger Accounting with SAP S/4HANA

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General Ledger Accounting with SAP S/4HANA


By Anand Seetharaju and Mayank Sharma

General Ledger


Preface by Anand Seetharaju

This book on General Ledger Accounting with SAP S/4HANA offers comprehensive coverage of general ledger specialized topics to cater to various audiences. It imparts accounting knowledge and SAP general ledger functionality with step-by-step instructions on the customizing activities necessary to carry out either a new implementation or a finance transformation project. Throughout this book, we’ve shared real-time practical experiences. This book is structured in a logical sequence of topics, organized into nineteen chapters as follows:



Table of Contents

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General Ledger









Chapter 1 Introduction

We start with an introduction of the financial accounting framework and provide some foundational knowledge about working with general ledgers. Then, we transition into SAP S/4HANA, explaining general concepts and the features offered with the Universal Journal table.


Chapter 2 Organizational Structure

Organizational structure—the foundational building block for any finance system implementation. In this chapter, we cover relevant organizational structure topics from the point of view of the general ledger.


Chapter 3 Integrated Business Processes

You learn how cross-component integration is essential for a fully functional finance system. In this chapter, we walk you through several cross-functional process flows, along with their relevant journal entries, in the T-account format.


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 Chapter 4 Fiscal Year and Posting Periods

We provide insights on designing fiscal year and calendar requirements and cover step-by-step instructions on configuring fiscal year and posting period variants in the system.


Chapter 5 Parallel Reporting

You’ll learn the basics of parallel accounting with the SAP S/4HANA general ledger. All large corporations require some form of parallel accounting to meet accounting standards, such as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and often also a local GAAP. In this chapter, we provide a solid foundation on parallel accounting concepts in SAP S/4HANA general ledger.


Chapter 6 Currencies

We provide extensive coverage on currencies in the SAP S/4HANA general ledger. We’ll describe the exchange rate application and other relevant configurations. The final section covers the implementation of a new currency on a live system.

Designing an effective chart of accounts is essential for any successful financial accounting system. In addition, a well-designed and implemented chart of accounts can provide your organization’s management with better control and governance and the ability analyze financial data quickly.


Chapter 7 Master Data

We provide key points you should remember when designing a chart of accounts in general ledger accounting. Later, this chapter provides step-by-step instructions on creating account master data in general ledger accounting.

Documents and journals are used interchangeably in general ledger accounting.


Chapter 8 Documents and Posting Control

We walk you through the document principle and the document controls functionality when posting documents in general ledger accounting. We’ll also walk you through several important customizing activities in this area.

Segment reporting in financial accounting is one of the many GAAP disclosure requirements. This requirement can be accomplished by enabling document splitting in general ledger accounting.


Chapter 9 Document Splitting

We provide a comprehensive overview of the general ledger customizing activity and segment reporting concepts. In addition, this chapter will show you how to introduce document splitting on a live system.


Chapter 10 Profit Center Accounting

SAP has integrated profit center organizational data with the Universal Journal. As a result, you’ll need basic knowledge and an understanding of profit center accounting in the SAP S/4HANA general ledger. In Chapter 10, we focus on profit center concepts, including planning, actual postings, and transfer postings. Finally, we’ll provide insights on profit center reorganization and key considerations to consider when such changes are planned.


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Chapter 11 Document Posting

We explain document posting in general ledger accounting in SAP S/4HANA. This chapter walks you through the process of parking and holding documents, along with the workflow in general ledger accounting. This chapter further expands on how you can post recurring journal entries. We’ll also outline how to enhance document posting processes with substitution and validation rules in general ledger accounting.


Chapter 12 Document Clearing

The document clearing functionality ensures a business transaction is complete in an SAP financial accounting system. Quite a few nuances exist that finance implementation consultants and accountants must consider when clearing documents.

Chapter 12 imparts this knowledge so clearing-related activities are performed efficiently to speed up period-end closing activities.


Chapter 13 Cost of Sales Accounting

We provide a solid introduction to the cost of sales concept. We’ll dive deeply into functional areas and their derivation during document posting in the Universal Journal. You’ll also learn about customizing activities related to cost of sales accounting.


Chapter 14 Financial Close

Understanding period-end closing tasks is critical for closing your books on time. With real-time closing requirements in mind, this chapter focuses on period-end closing activities, covering manual and automated processes. Chapter 14 provides insights into several closing tools provided by SAP, such as the SAP S/4HANA Financial Closing Cockpit, SAP S/4HANA Cloud for advanced financial closing, and intercompany matching and reconciliation (ICMR).


Chapter 15 Accruals Management

Accruals and deferrals are essential for matching revenues against expenses. In Chapter 15, we’ll explain accounting concepts for accruals and deferrals with some general examples. Then, we’ll discuss SAP’s accrual engine functionality and cover different accruals. This chapter concludes with migrating manual accruals to the SAP S/4HANA accrual engine.


Chapter 16 Reporting and Analytics

You’ll learn all about the general ledger reports and analytical tools available in SAP S/4HANA, starting with the basics of reporting. Then, we’ll dive deeply into financial system versions (FSVs) and their creation, including managing global hierarchies or creating financial statement versions. Then, we’ll cover SAP Fiori apps available for general ledger accounting as of the current release of SAP S/4HANA. We’ll conclude this chapter by highlighting other reporting tools, such as advanced compliance reporting (ACR) and group reporting.


Chapter 17 Conversion to the General Ledger in SAP S/4HANA

Customers migrating from the classic general ledger to general ledger accounting in SAP S/4HANA will need to understand the challenges and steps involved in system conversion. Chapter 17 provides an overview of the SAP S/4HANA general ledger conversion process, highlighting the necessary SAP Notes for further guidance.


Chapter 18 General Ledger with Central Finance

Customers implementing Central Finance face a different set of challenges from a general ledger point of view. In Chapter 18, we cover the challenges, mapping rules, and necessary configuration tasks for implementing Central Finance.


Chapter 19 Miscellaneous Topics

We cover topics otherwise not covered in this book that we still feel are topics essential to implementing the general ledger in SAP S/4HANA. We’ll walk you through several important topics, such as scheduling jobs, using TVARVC tables, document archiving, and authorizations.


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General Ledger


Meet Anand Seetharaju in-person at SAP Controlling Financials 2023 Conference, Sept 17-19 San Diego, CA. Use coupon code: JJ100 for $100 off: Click here

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